The OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) standard (29 CFR 1910.119) was published in the Federal Register and effective in February 1992. But even after 15 years of the standard being in place, industry was still experiencing incidents such as the BP refinery explosion in March 2005. In June 2007, OSHA implemented the Refinery National Emphasis Program (NEP) for refineries and in July 2009 piloted the Chemical NEP for all other PSM-covered facilities. Jordan Barab, OSHA deputy assistant secretary, stated the “NEPs are the most significant enforcement action since the [PSM] standard was promulgated in 1992” The purpose of the NEP was to conduct planned, focused and comprehensive inspections using a structured list of questions. Using this new approach, OSHA inspections have resulted in the identification of more violations and higher penalties than ever before.